GLOSSARY

A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

A.2P.
The A2P mark (Assurance Prévention Protection [Prevention and Protection Insurance]) is also an anti-intrusion certification adapted to equipment for protection against intrusion. This certification is issued by the CNPP.

A.F.N.O.R.
The Association française de normalisation [French Association of Standardisation] is the official organisation charged with ensuring that products conform to NF standards.

A.P.S.
Alimentation Pneumatique de Sécurité [Safety Pneumatic Supply]

A.P.S.A.D.
Assemblée Plènière des Sociétés d’Assurances Dommages [Plenary Assembly of Property and Casualty Companies]: Mark issued by the CNPP certifying in France the quality of a fire/intrusion/video safety system or remote surveillance systems, whether for devices or services.

Access
The crossing point of a property, a building, a room.

Access Control
All the physical and/or electronic equipment that ensure that access (to a place, a system, etc.) is authorised.

Access Control Reader
Electronic system enabling the reading, through projection, through close contact or remotely, of the electronic elements contained on or in a badge. The reader enables the identification of the badge wearer.

Access Lock
Access space that is enclosed on both sides by openings that cannot be opened at the same time. The openings are generally interlocked. One opening is not able to open when the other is not closed. The aim of this system is to streamline and control, and individually identify or authenticate access. Access locks can be made of various materials.

Access Management
All the means (physical, technical, electronic, human and organisational) enabling the management (authorisation/prevention), drawing and planning of access authorisations to defined places.

Activation Energy 
This is the quantity of energy necessary to generate a fire in the presence of a combustion agent and fuel. More often than not it is a heat source or even a flame or spark.

AED
Automatic External Defibrillator

Aggression
An aggression is violent, sudden and unprovoked attack. An aggression can be physical or even verbal. Acts of physical violence that constitute offences punishable by law (contravention, offence or crime). The penal sanctions depend on the severity of the injuries inflicted on the victim. Verbal aggression can have a penal classification. This is the case for an insult or a threat.

AI
Artificial Intelligence

Alarm
Sound, light and/or discreet signal that gives an inside warning of a danger or provokes a reaction. There are different categories of alarms.

Anti-passback
Functionality of access control that stops a person from entering the same area twice, without having left beforehand.

Anti-theft Gate
Detection Antenna for Anti-theft Tags

Anti-theft Tag

Appearance-based discrimination
Appearance-based discrimination refers to the act of judging a person by their appearance. It does not only involve their appearance, that is their face, but also their clothes, the colour of their skin and their accent. Generally, the expression is applied to discriminatory or racist practices.

Armoured Doors
Doors complying with European standard EN 1627.

Armoured Vehicle
The different standards of armour correspond to a level of protection depending on the threat. The levels of armour go from B2 (NIJ-II) to B7, which represents the highest level in the field of civil vehicles.

Arson
Fire of malevolent origin.

Authentication
Authentication enables the confirmation of the proof of one’s identity. For example, biometrics allows authentication.

Authentication
Device enabling the identification of a person or an object.

B

B.A.E.S.
Bloc Autonome d’Éclairage de Sécurité [Portable Self-Contained Emergency Light]

Badge
Paper or laminated copy that aids the identification of the wearer.

Barbed Wire
Strands of twisted iron that can serve as a demarcation of property. They should be used as a deterrent.

BCP
Business Continuity Plan

BGR
Break Glass Release: this is a manual trigger for an emergency exit.

BI
Business Intelligence. It used to be called Economic Espionage.

Biometrics
Biometrics groups “all computing techniques aiming to automatically recognise an individual through their physical, biological or even behavioural characteristics”.

Blackmail
Blackmail is the act of obtaining either a signature, a commitment or a renunciation, the revelation of a secret, or the handing over of funds, valuables or any asset, by threatening to reveal or impute facts liable to undermine a person’s honour or reputation.

BMS
Building Management System

Bolt
Mobile piece of a lock that engages in a latch to keep an opening closed.

Book VI
Code de la Sécurité Intérieure [Internal Security Code]: Book VI covers Private Security Activities

Breach of Professional Confidentiality
According to Article 226-13 of the French Penal Code, this is the disclosure of a piece of confidential information by a person who is its depositary either by state or by profession, either because of a job or a temporary assignment. This is punished by one year’s imprisonment and a fine of 15,000 euros.

Breach of Trust
Breach of trust is defined in Article 314-1 of the French Penal Code as being “committed when a person, to the prejudice of other persons, misappropriates funds, valuables or any property that were handed over to him and that he accepted subject to the condition of returning, redelivering or using them in a specified way”.

Break-in
According to Article 132-73 of the French Penal Code, a break-in consists of forcing, damaging or destroying any closing device or any kind of fence.  Break-in also includes the use of skeleton keys, wrongfully obtained keys or any instrument that can be fraudulently employed to operate a closing device without forcing or damaging it.

Burglar-proof Window
Window conforming to the CLASS 4 BURGLAR-PROOF SECURITY standard (UNI ENV 1627/30:2000 standard).

C

C.A.C.E.S.
Certificat d’Aptitude à la Conduite en Sécurité [Certificate of Aptitude in Safe Driving]

C.D.
Confidentiel Défense [Confidential]

C.M.S.I.
Centralisateur de Mise en Sécurité Incendie [Central Fire Safety System]

C.N.A.P.S.
Conseil National des Activités Privées de Sécurité [National Board of Private Security Activities]: http://www.cnaps.interieur.gouv.fr

C.N.I.L.
Commission Nationale de l’Informatique et des Libertés [National Commission on Informatics and Liberty]: https://www.cnil.fr

C.N.P.P.
Centre National de Prévention et de Protection [National Centre for Prevention and Protection]: https://www.cnpp.com

CCS
Central Command Station of Security and/or Safety, of a site or a building, centralising the alarms, the means of alert and connection.

Central Alarm
Equipment designed to control the processing of the information from the detectors and the control of alarm devices. A central alarm includes, in separated elements or not: a processing box, its on/off switch or switches, its power supply or supplies, one or more activation control device.

Checkout Security Guard
This is the name of the job attributed to a security guard placed behind the checkouts in the distribution sector. The guard’s task is to ensure that the receipt matches the purchase made. If there is any doubt, the guard can apply the guidelines laid down by their employer for this purpose.

CID
Control Interface Device

Class of Fire: A
Class A: fire involving solids with normal combustion and embers.

Class of Fire: B
Class B: fire involving liquids or liquefiable solids.

Class of Fire: C
Class C: fires involving gas.

Class of Fire: D
Class D: fires involving metals.

Class of Fire: F
Class F: cooking fires (oils and vegetable and animal fats).

Close Protection
Task of ensuring the protection of people. In public administration, the staff in charge of this task are called “Security Officers”. In the private sector, they are called “Close Protection Officers”, the new name for “Bodyguards”.

Cloud Souverain
Data hosting provider that guarantees both the nationality of the place of hosting and access to the client’s data. The latter safeguards the technical and legal control of its contents.

Collusion
According to Article 121-7 of the French Penal Code, the accomplice to a felony or a misdemeanour is the person who knowingly, by aiding and abetting, facilitates its preparation or commission. Any person who, by means of a gift, promise, threat, order, or an abuse of authority and powers, provokes the commission of an offence or gives instructions to commit it, is also an accomplice.

Combustion Agent
This is a chemical substance that enables combustion. This includes Oxygen (O2) present in the ambient air, Ozone O3, Halogens of Nitrates, etc.

Concertina Wire
Name given to barbed wire in coils of 60 to 90 cm in diameter. Generally positioned on cranked tops to prevent a fence being crossed.

Confidentiality Agreement
The object of a confidentiality agreement, also known as a secrecy clause, discretion clause or a non-disclosure agreement, is to impose silence on the partner around information that is communicated to them, such as technical, business or financial information, or silence on the existence of negotiations or a contractual relationship. It puts its debtor under the obligation of not doing.

Contravention
One of the categories of criminal offences that is punished solely by means of a fine or ancillary punishments (for example, the suspension of a driving licence). In terms of the severity of offence, contravention is less serious than a misdemeanour, which itself is less serious than a felony.

Counterfeiting
Counterfeiting is the reproduction or imitation of an object, (particularly official) document, a work or a goods, either by stating or letting it be assumed that it is authentic, or by violating an intellectual property right or copyright.

CPO
Close Protection Officer (Bodyguard)

CPQ
Certificate of Professional Qualification: Basic training necessary to work, mainly in the Security Agent profession.

Cranked Top
Cranked tops are features inclined at 45°, installed on fence posts. They are single or double branched. They are designed to stop people from climbing the fence. They are generally combined with barbed wire or concertina coils. Note: ensure that the plumb distance of the cranked top on the exterior of the property is always within the legal limit of the property.

Cross-appeal
Term used in Remote Surveillance in particular and according to a defined procedure, to verify a piece of information or a received call.

CTM
Centralised Technical Management

Cybersecurity
see: https://www.ssi.gouv.fr/particulier/glossaire/

Cyclical Testing
Enables regular verification in order to ensure that the telephone line and the plant are functioning in an optimal manner.

D

D.A.D.
Détecteur Autonome Déclencheur [Actuating Detector]

D.A.S.
Dispositif Actionné de Sécurité [Actuated Safety Device]

D.A.T.I.
DATI: Dispositif d’Alarme pour Travailleur Isolé [Lone Worker Alarm], or PTI: Protection Travailleur Isolé [Lone Worker Protection, LWP]… This includes all the methods that safeguard a person who works alone.

D.C.M.
Dispositif de Commande Manuelle [Manually Controlled Device]

D.C.M.R.
Dispositif de Commandes Manuelles Regroupées [Grouped Manually Controlled Devices]

D.C.S.
Dispositif de Commande avec Signalisation [Control Device with Signalling]

D.C.T.
Dispositif Commandé Terminal [Controlled Device Terminal]

D.M.
Déclencheur Manuel [Manual Trigger]

D.R.S.D.
Direction du Renseignement et de la Sécurité de la Défense [Directorate for Defence Intelligence and Security]

D.S.
Diffuseur Sonore [Sound Diffuser]

D.U.E.R.P.
Document Unique d’Évaluation des Risques Professionnels [Single Document for the Evaluation of Occupational Risks]

Data Intelligence
Methods of collecting, analysing and synthesising relevant and useful information for the company.

Dog Handler

Dome
see Dome Camera

Doorframe
Fixed frame of an opening.

DPO
Data Protection Officer

DRP
Disaster Recovery Plan

Dynamic Masking

E

E.A.
Équipement d’Alarme [Alarm Equipment]

E.C.S.
Écran de Contrôle et de Signalisation [Control and Signalling Screen]

E.R.P.
The Établissements Recevant du Public [Public Buildings], or ERP, are buildings to which external people are admitted. It does not matter whether the access is charged or free, unrestricted, restricted or by invitation. A business that is not open to the public, but only to its staff, is not an ERP. ERPs are classed in categories that define the applicable regulatory requirements (type of authorisation for works or safety regulations, for example) depending on the risks.

Economic Security
All of the methods, techniques and legal processes enabling a company to work and prosper in a competitive world through Data Intelligence, the Protection of Information Assets, Influence and lobbying.

Emergency Lighting
Its aim is to indicate the evacuation route of a building even in the event of a power cut.

EN 14604  
The European standard EN 14604 certifies that your smoke alarm conforms to European standards.

Environmental Security
“Includes three elements:
1) sustainable use of renewable and non-renewable resources;
2) the protection of the elements (air, water, earth) in order to prevent pollution destroying natural regeneration;
3) the maximum reduction of dangers linked to industrial activities.”

Euroclasses 
Classification of a product depending on its reaction to fire.

Evacuation Guide
Trained volunteer who, during an evacuation of their building, has the role of guiding and prompting people to evacuate using the emergency exits.

Evacuation Plan
An evacuation plan is a plan that must be displayed in any building to facilitate the evacuation of the people present in the building in the case of fire. (NFX08-070 standard)

Event Report
Written, detailed and in-depth account of an event directed to a line manager.

Evidence
A piece of evidence is an object or document that establishes the reality of a fact or a legal act. All types of evidence (written, oral testimony, confession, scientific examination, etc.) are admitted before the judge. However, they must all be researched and produced in keeping with the rules of law.

Exit

F

Facial Recognition
Software enabling the identification of an individual from a photo or 3D model created from several images of the person.

False Alarm
An alarm is deemed to be false when it has been inappropriately triggered.

FD
Fire Damper (self-actuating or remote-controlled)

FD
Fire Door

FDS
Fire Detection System

Felony
Felony refers to the most serious offences in French criminal law. The person accused of a felony is judged in a court of assizes in front of a jury. It incurs a prison sentence (minimum of 15 years and maximum of life), as well as possible fines (minimum 3,750 euros for a natural person and 75,000 euros for a legal person) or ancillary punishments (bans, confiscations, etc.). It has a statute of limitations of 10 years.

Fence
In terms of Safety, the essential role of a fence or physical, peripheral protection is to prevent crossing in one sense or another. This protection can be of a different nature: reinforced grating, palisade, etc. It demarcates the property.

FHS
A FHS is a Fire Hose Station. It is a piece of first response equipment in fire-fighting, which is composed of a reel, a wound hose and a fire hose. It is supplied with water ready to employ. It must be used by a trained person. Installed in classified establishments and in industry.

Fire
A fire is a combustion of an entity producing flames, light and heat.

Fire Escape
Set of stairs made of fireproof materials, based on regulatory obligations, in order to enable the evacuation of the occupants of a building.

Fire Extinguisher
The fire extinguisher acts on one of the three elements of the fire triangle. Fire extinguishers contain water, CO2 or powder. Additives increase the extinguishing power of the extinguisher.

Fire Extinguisher
Tool to enable firefighting. There are several types depending on the nature of the fire: CO2, water + additive or powder.

Fire Prevention: 
These are all the measures taken to limit the risk of fire.

Fire Triangle
Fire is the result of combustion. Combustion is a chemical reaction that necessitates the combination of a fuel, a combustion agent and an activation energy. These 3 elements constitute the Fire Triangle.

Fire Warden
Trained volunteer who, during an evacuation of their building, has the role of checking that no one is left behind.

Fireproof Cabinet
A fireproof cabinet is a cabinet where the sides are made of a material that is resistant to temperature increase, to protect the objects or documents inside against fire risks.

Flagrant felony
Flagrant felony is the legal term employed to refer to a situation in which an individual is caught in the act of committing a felony or misdemeanour – Article 53 of the French Code of Criminal Procedure.

Flammability
Describes anything that is potentially flammable or combustible. This can be solids, gases or liquids.

Flue Gas
These gases produced by combustion can be: asphyxiant, corrosive and flammable or even toxic. This includes carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrocyanic gas (HCN) and others depending on the combustion materials.

Fortified Cabinet
A fortified cabinet is a reinforced cabinet, in particular with regard to the door and its lock and closing mechanisms. Its resistance to forced entry varies depending on the model.

Fraud
This is an act that is committed by using unfair means designed to fraudulently obtain consent, an unfair material or moral advantage or committed with the intention of avoiding the enforcement of Laws.

Fraudulent Obtaining
According to Article 313-1 of the French Penal Code, fraudulent obtaining is the act of deceiving a natural or legal person by the use of a false name or a fictitious capacity, by the abuse of a genuine capacity, or by means of unlawful manoeuvres, thereby to lead such a person, to their prejudice or to the prejudice of a third party, to transfer funds, valuables or any property, to provide a service or to consent to an act incurring or discharging an obligation. Fraudulent obtaining is punished by five years’ imprisonment and a fine of 375,000 euros.

FSS
Fire Safety System

Fuel
Matter that, in the presence of a combustion agent (oxygen) and energy (heat source or flame) generates combustion. Fuels are split into 3 large categories: solids, liquids or gases.

G

GDPR
General Data Protection Regulation

Glass Break Detector
Sensor enabling the detection of a glass break. Several different technologies exist.

H

H0 B0
The training course and qualification H0 B0 that arises from it aims to bring Security-related skills to staff before completing tasks or non-electrical work in a place that is defined as dangerous.

Handrail
A handrail is a declaration made by an individual and documented in a police or gendarmerie register, and that seeks to date events of a certain gravity but that do not necessarily single-handedly constitute an infraction, that is a contravention, an offence or a felony.

Hearing-impaired
Refers to a person presenting hearing impairments.

Heat and smoke vents
Heat and smoke vents are a security function against fire. They have three objectives: to facilitate evacuation, to prevent the spread of fire and to facilitate the access of the emergency services. They can be mechanical or natural, automatic or manual.

Hit and run
According to Article 434-10 of the French Penal Code, a hit and run is the act, for any driver of a terrestrial vehicle, or a river or sea-going craft, knowing that they have just caused or brought about an accident, of not stopping or attempting to evade the criminal or civil liability that they may have incurred. This offence is punished by three years in prison and a fine of €75,000. According to Article 434-45 of the French Penal Code, natural persons convicted of the offence referred to under Article 434-10 also incur the suspension of their driving licence for a maximum period of five years. This suspension may not be restricted to the driving of a vehicle outside of professional activities.

HRB
High-rise Building: This notion is defined by Article R122-2 of the French Construction and Housing Code: “a high-rise building constitutes any building section whose top floor slab level is 50 metres higher than the highest ground level that public utilities machinery and fire fighting equipment can use, for housing, and more than 28 metres higher for all other buildings.”

Hypervision
Hypervision is the centralisation of the monitoring tools for different applications. It enables the management of several applications from a single tool.

I

Incivilities
Incivilities refer to the disorders or misbehaviours that, without being expressly targeted by the Penal Code, constitute failures to comply with the basic rules of societal life: noise disturbances, damages, lack of respect.

Influence
Influence is a method composed of a combination of actions that involve constructing a network of partners and experts, supporting and promoting influencers and investing in vector images, in the business’ interests.

Infraction
An infraction is a behaviour that is strictly forbidden by criminal law and punished by a sentence laid down by the aforementioned law. There are three categories of infractions whose nature determines the penalty that applies to it: contravention, offence and felony.

Infrared Barrier
Detection barrier used either as exterior peripheral protection or as perimeter protection on the border of a building. An infrared transmitter (that is active) emits an infrared ray to a receptor.

Inhibition
Phenomenon that slows down and prevents chemical reactions that come from combustion.

Instructions
The objective of these is to provide a reminder and information on what should be done.

Internal Security Code
The Code de la Sécurité Intérieure [Internal Security Code], or CSI, is, in French law, a legal code created in 2012 to group together the legislative and regulatory provisions that touch upon internal security.

Intrusion
Act of penetrating a non-authorised space.

Invasion of Privacy
According to Article 226-1 of the French Penal Code, this infringement is committed, by any means, when the intimacy of the private life of other persons is violated by intercepting, recording or transmitting words uttered in private or confidential circumstances, without the consent of the person concerned, or by taking, recording or transmitting the picture of a person who is within a private place, without the consent of the person concerned. This is punished by one year’s imprisonment and a fine of 45,000 euros.

Ionic
Object containing ions, a radioactive material. Some smoke alarms use this system to detect smoke. They are completely banned in France, where only optical smoke detectors are authorised.

Ionisation Detector
Device using fire detection technology based on the use of radioactive matter. This technology is banned in France (ref. text).

IOP
Internal Operating Plan

IoT
The Internet of Things is the interconnection between the Internet and objects, places and physical environments.

Implementation of Fire Safety 
The implementation of fire safety of a building or part of a building is based on 4 major functions, which are: evacuation, heat and smoke vents, partitioning, and the shutdown of technical installations.

J

Jamming Device
Electronic device that enables, through the emission or reflection of electromagnetic signals, the disruption of means of detection or radio communication.

K

L

L.P.M.
Loi de Programmation Militaire [Military Planning Law]

Latch
Integral or added element to a doorframe in which the lock bolt is engaged. The latch can be interlocked and therefore electric.

Legal Proceeding
Refers to all the rules laid down by the law or by the regulation that must be respected by jurisdictions and public persons for the successful completion of a trial and the respect of citizen’s rights and liberties.

Lithium (battery)
Lithium is a chemical compound used to manufacture long-lasting batteries. The voltage dispensed is often double that of classic alkaline or carbon-zinc batteries. Lithium batteries are soldered to the detector. They ensure an operating life of 5 to 10 years depending on the model.

Lobbying
Lobbying is a regulated activity and a method that consists of influencing decision-makers (Laws, Regulations, Standards) so that the normative framework goes in the direction of the business’ interests.

Localised Alarm
Sound, light and/or discreet alarm that alerts a central security station or dedicated staff to intervene.

Lone Worker
In the absence of a regulatory definition of lone work, this is the evaluation of the risks that shall oblige the employer to permit the identification of situations of prolonged or intermittent, usual or unintended isolation and the associated risks. It then falls back to the employer to determine the measures that are appropriate for their prevention.

M

Malicious Acts
Risk of human origin, relating to wilful acts with the intention of harming a natural or legal person, an organisation or a property.

Mark
This is a mark guaranteeing compliance with a standard. For example, the NF 292 or EN 14604 standards are respectively characterised by a NF and CE logo.

Mechanical Protection
All the mechanical elements installed on equipment to reinforce the equipment and delay a possible intrusion.

N

NF 292
It has been the French certification of reference for smoke detectors since 1st May 2008. It conforms to the European standard EN 14604.

O

O.S.E.
Essential Services Officer

Offence
An offence is a level of qualification of criminal offences that is defined by the severity of the established sentence to punish them and that are, without exception, judged by a criminal court. An offence is an infraction of medium severity between an infraction and a felony. The maximum term of imprisonment is 10 years and the fine can be up to 3,750 euros for a natural person and 18,750 euros for a legal person.

Opacifying Smoke Generator
Device combined with an alarm system that enables the project of a dense smoke rendering intrusion almost impossible in a premises or a closed building.

Opening Detector
Sensor enabling the detection of an opening being opened.

OVI
Operator of Vital Importance

P

P.P.R.I.
Plan de Prévention du Risque Inondation [Flood Risk Prevention Plan]

P.R.A.P.
Prévention des Risques liés à l’Activité Physique [Prevention of Risks linked to Physical Activity]

P.T.I.
Protection Travailleur Isolé [Lone Worker Protection]: This includes all the methods that safeguard a person who works alone. PTI: Protection du Travailleur Isolé [Lone Worker Protection], or DATI: Dispositif d’Alarme pour Travailleur Isolé [Lone Worker Alarm].

Pat-Down Screening
Non-intrusive security measure on a consenting person to uncover an object that is dangerous to themselves or another person. It is different from a body search, an intrusive and coercive measure, that can only be implemented by a police officer. Pat-downs are always done by a person of the same sex as the person involved in the measure.

Patrol
A patrol is a course defined in an evaluated space and time, with specific crossing points and preestablished checkpoints. A patrol is carried out by a qualified person.

Patrol Control
Method of controlling the execution of a patrol and its correct implementation.

Patrol Guard
Human Security Guard whose task is to carry out patrols.

Perimeter
Exterior limit and edge of a building or an enclosed space.

Perimeter Detection
System combining different typologies of detectors to detect an intrusion in a defined area.

Peripheral Detection
System combining different typologies of detectors to detect an intrusion in the periphery of a defined area.

Peripheral Protection
All the structural elements installed at the periphery of a site to reinforce and delay a possible intrusion.

Periphery
Exterior limit and edge of a property or a place.

Photoelectric
Product of electrons under the influence of light.

Physical Protection
All the structural elements installed at a site to reinforce and delay a possible intrusion.

Police custody
Police custody is a preventative measure decided by a police officer, under the control of a judicial authority, by which a person against which there exists one or more plausible reasons to suspect that they have committed or attempted to commit a felony or an offence punishable by a term of imprisonment is upheld by the provisions of the investigators.

PPE
Personal Protective Equipment: All the equipment provided to an individual in order to protect them while carrying out a task.

Prevention Plan
A prevention plan is an evaluation of the risks carried out when an external company must intervene in a company. This document is initiated by the user company and carried out together with the external company.

Private Security
Private Security brings together Suppliers and Providers of Technological Solutions or Human Surveillance.

PRM
Person with Reduced Mobility: a person affected by a physical handicap.

Procedure
All the specific guidance on the method of applying or implementing an instruction.

Procedure
Successive actions and operations to manufacture something.

Process
Method to execute a task.

Protection of Information Assets
Methods of protecting sensitive information in all its aspects: the information itself, the processes and systems that handle it – logic modelled on quality management and based on risk management (impact, occurrence probability, criticality).

PZ
Protected Zone

Q

R

Radicalisation
Process according to which people adopt an extreme belief system – including the willingness to use, encourage or facilitate violence – in order to implement an ideology, a political project or a cause as a method of social change.

Railings
Principles of installation of railings. The space between the railings must be no more than 11 cm. The railings must be correctly sealed at the top and bottom of the wall.

Release
Refers to all the parts of a building that enable the evacuation of its occupants (corridor, ramp, stairs, door, exit, etc.).

Remote Monitoring Centre
Remote Monitoring Establishment equipped to receive alarms (see Remote Monitoring). Remote Monitoring establishments are equipped and protected according to the P1 to P5 standards, which determine the levels of authorisation. The higher the level, the more important the means (technical, human, organisational) are.

Remote Surveillance
Remote Surveillance is the concept of directing the elements of alarm detection (intrusion, fire, technical) through an external connection (fibre, ADSL, radio, 4G) to a remote centre (Centre of Remote Surveillance) enabling the collection of information, qualifying and processing it and, finally, applying specific preestablished instructions.

Remote Video Surveillance
Remote Video Surveillance is a type of remote surveillance that combines the transmission, after an alarm, of images and/or enables the implementation of a remote procedure of removal of doubt by video.

Removal of Doubt
Regulatory procedure to confirm the appropriateness of the alarm. The removal of doubt can be carried out remotely (listening to audio, visual through video, technical through alarms on successive sensors) or through human presence dispatched to the scene.

Resilience
Capacity of an organisation (business, State, etc.) to overcome damage to its environment (crisis, attack, economic shock, etc.).

RFID
Radio-frequency identification, most often designated by the acronym RFID, is a method for storing and retrieving data remotely by using markers called “radio-tags” (“RFID tag” or “RFID transponder”).

Rising Barrier
Rigid barrier that rises (manually or motorised) on a vertical axis at one end.

Risk Analysis
Identifying and evaluating potential dangers of any nature that can threaten property, values and people.

ROI
Return on Investment

S

S.D.
Secret Défense [Secret]

S.M.S.I.
Système de Mise en Sécurité Incendie [Fire Safety System Implementation]

S.S.I.
Système de Sécurité Incendie [Fire Safety System]

S.S.I.A.P.
“The Service de Sécurité Incendie et d’Assistance à Personnes [Fire Safety and Personal Assistance Department], or SSIAP, is an obligatory, degree-giving training course in France. The SSIAP combines different training courses involving fire safety staff working in public buildings (ERP) and high-rise buildings (IGH). The SSIAP training course, with a final exam, is enshrined in the law, and the programmes are designed to give the candidate solid foundations in terms of prevention and safety. The SSIAP is made of 3 supplementary and distinct levels: SSIAP 1, SSIAP 2 and SSIAP 3 (amended decree of 2 May 2005).
SSIAP 1: Provides access to the work of a Fire Safety Officer.
SSIAP 2: Leads to the post of Fire Safety Team Leader.
SSIAP 3: Provides access to the duties of the Manager. ”

S.S.S.
Système de Sonorisation de Sécurité [Security PA System]

S.S.T.
Workplace First Aid: training course that aims to train the employees of a company to intervene during an accident in the workplace.

SAD
Semi-automatic Defibrillator

Safe
Piece of metal furniture, reinforced by a specific plating and whose opening is equipped with Safety locks and/or combination opening devices. It is used to store valuable objects and/or documents. The resistance to forced entry varies depending on the nature and quality of the product. It is fixed to the ground and the wall.

Safety
Safety is all of the human, organisational and technical means combined to deal with spontaneous or deliberate acts whose aim is to harm or jeopardise for psychological and/or financial gain.

Safety at Work
Multidisciplinary approach that aims to eliminate or reduce the risk of accidents likely to be produced when a professional activity is carried out.

Safety Ink
Specific ink that prevents the reproduction or forgery of a document. It also enables the authenticity of a document to be verified.

Scalability
An IT product’s potential to deal with a strong demand while maintaining its performance.

SCBA
Self-contained Breathing Apparatus

SDS
Safety Data Sheet

Secure Waiting Area
A Secure Waiting Area is an area with a shelter from smoke, flames and thermal radiation. A person, irrespective of their handicap, should be able to get there and if they cannot continue their route, wait for external help to evacuate (Article C034, paragraph 6 of the French Fire Safety Regulation).

Security
Security is all of the human, organisational and technical means combined to deal with technical, physical, chemical and environmental risks that could damage people or property without a profit goal.

Security Checkpoint
Walk-through Metal-detector

Security Guard
Security Guard (Safety Task): holder of a Professional Qualification Certificate or a Professional Card issued by the Conseil National des Activités Privées de Sécurité [National Board of Private Security Activities], or CNAPS. Employee of an Internal Security Service or a Private Security Service Provider.

Security Officer
The task of the security officer within companies is to set the rules and security instructions to be put into action, relating to people, information and supports protected by a specific classification (Articles R 2311-2 and R 2311-3 of the French Defence Code define three levels of classification: Très Secret Défense [Top Secret], Secret Défense [Secret], Confidentiel Défense [Confidential]). They are responsible for ensuring the proper implementation of these rules and instructions.

Self-defence
Article 122-5 of the French Penal Code indicates that a person is not criminally liable if, confronted with an unjustified attack upon themselves or upon another, they perform at that moment an action compelled by the necessity of self-defence or the defence of another person, except where the means of defence used are not proportionate to the seriousness of the attack. Likewise, a person is not criminally liable if, to interrupt the commission of a felony or a misdemeanour against property, they perform an act of defence other than wilful murder, where the act is strictly necessary for the intended objective if the means used are proportionate to the gravity of the offence.

Self-protection
A system that gives an alert if a wilful or inadvertent action is such that it will corrupt the proper functioning of a system and/or a device.

SGA
Selective General Alarm

Shock Detector
Sensor enabling the detection of shocks or vibrations on walls. Several different technologies exist.
Shop Security Officer
This is the name of the job attributed to a security guard moving around the retail space, in the retail sector. The guard’s task is to spot criminal or illicit behaviour and to report it over the radio. If there is any doubt, the guard can apply the guidelines laid down by their employer for this purpose.

Shrinkage
“Term used mainly in retail to qualify the sources of financial losses for a shop or warehouse. There are 3 types:
*known loss: product that has become unsaleable and is retired from sales (broken, expired, etc.);
*unknown loss: product not recovered during the cross-checking of the book inventory and the physical inventory;
*financial: money not recovered during the cross-checking of the book inventory of funds present in a shop with the funds actually counted.”

Signposting
Act of marking different dangers, such as obstacles or objects likely to cause an accident, by making them visible, thanks to barriers, cones or with road markings.

Simplified Standard 42 CNIL
The simplified standard 42 issued by the CNIL defines the processing linked to the management of the access control on workplaces in France.

Siren
This is a sound signal that enables the warning of an imminent danger.

Sliding Fence
Rigid barrier that slides (manually or motorised) on a rail.

Smoke
This is a mix of gas and vapour particles emerging from a burning entity.

Smoke Detectors
Smoke Detectors are optical detectors of smoke (ion technology is banned in France).

SPRINKLER
Sprinkler system (enabling an incipient fire to be extinguished and contained). Sprinkler is the American brand that has “given” its name to this type of system.

SPS
Safety Power Supply

SSMP
Plan Particulier de Mise en Sûreté [Specific Safety Measures Plan]

Station/Site Manager

SU
Signal Unit

Swindling
Swindling is the term chosen by the legislator to refer to e.g. ordering food or drink in a restaurant and being unable or unwilling to pay for it (Article 313-5 of the French Penal Code). This criminal provision predominantly punishes the person who is unable to pay or who has decided not to honour their debt.

T

Team Leader

Telesafety
Telesafety is the concept of having remote surveillance combined with human intervention.

Ticket of Attendance
Paper document proving the attendance of someone when the alarm was activated, which includes a certain amount of specific information indicating the conditions and the results of the attendance.

Toxicity
Measures an element’s capacity to produce adverse and negative effects on health.

Traceability
Enables the recovery of the history of actions and operations in a procedure.

Traceability Tool
IT tool that allows someone to follow the traceability of events or malfunctions (Technical, Fire Safety, Accidentology, Safety) revealed by the Human Surveillance staff and to ensure a better understanding of the development of the criticality of the sites.

U

U.A.E.
Unité d’Aide à l’Exploitation [Operating Support Unit]: Computing unit that enables, through the display of completed plans, support to the operation of alarms, anomalies, etc.

U.C.M.C.
Unité de Commande Manuelle Centralisée [Centralised Manual Control Unit]

U.G.A.
Unité de Gestion d’Alarme [Alarm Management Unit]

U.G.C.I.S.
Unité de Gestion Centralisée des Issues de Secours [Centralised Management Unit of Emergency Exits]

Unit of Exit Width
“Each clearing must have a minimum exit width proportionate to the total number of persons called to take it.
This width must be calculated according to a width type (called “unit of exit width”) of 0.60 metres.
Nevertheless, when a clearing only includes one or two units of exit width, the width must be, respectively, from 0.60 metres to 0.90 metres and from 1.20 metres to 1.40 metres. (French Fire Safety Regulation – Article CO 36)”

V

Video Protection
Video Protection is Video Surveillance applied to any public space (Public Road, Public Building). Cameras must not be pointed at private areas. Systems for masking private areas must be integrated. The images must only be recorded for a limited time. A Video Protection system complies with technical regulations and standards. A complete file must be dropped at the Prefecture for validation before use or during modifications. https://www.interieur.gouv.fr/Videoprotection/Le-guide-methodologique

Video Surveillance
Video Surveillance is a system, composed of a combination of equipment (camera(s), connection network, recorder(s), screen(s), image processing software, etc.), installed in places that are not open to the public. The Video Surveillance System must not monitor workspaces and must be presented for validation to staff representatives. In the event of recording digital files, a declaration to the CNIL is obligatory.

Videoman
Qualified Security Guard who is authorised to monitor Video Protection screens.

Vigipirate
Alarm device on 3 levels in the face of the terrorist threat (Vigilance/Enhanced Security – Risk of Attack/Emergency Attack).

Volumetric Detector
Sensor enabling the detection of movement within a given volume. Several different technologies exist: Passive infrared, high frequencies, ultrasounds and blended solutions.

W

Warning
This is the act of preventing emergencies, that is outwardly “alerting”.

Weak Signals

Wire Mesh
Metal equipment enabling the fencing of a space. A wire mesh is made of metal yarn in varying thicknesses, meshes, welded or not.

X

Y

Z

Z.A.
Zone de Diffusion d’Alarme [Alarm Broadcast Zone]

Z.C.
Zone de Compartimentage [Partitioning Zone]

Z.D.
Zone de Détection [Detection Zone]

Z.F.
Zone de Désenfumage [Smoke Extraction Zone]

Z.R.
Zone Réservée [Reserved Area]

Z.R.R.
Zone à Régime Restrictif [Restricted Zone]

Z.S.
Zone de Mise en Sécurité [Safety Zone]