GLOSSARY

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A

Activation Energy 
This is the quantity of energy necessary to generate a fire in the presence of a combustion agent and fuel. More often than not it is a heat source or even a flame or spark.

B

B.A.E.S.
Bloc Autonome d’Éclairage de Sécurité [Portable Self-Contained Emergency Light]

BGR
Break Glass Release: this is a manual trigger for an emergency exit.

C

CID
Control Interface Device

Class of Fire: A
Class A: fire involving solids with normal combustion and embers.

Class of Fire: B
Class B: fire involving liquids or liquefiable solids.

Class of Fire: C
Class C: fires involving gas.

Class of Fire: D
Class D: fires involving metals.

Class of Fire: F
Class F: cooking fires (oils and vegetable and animal fats).

Combustion Agent
This is a chemical substance that enables combustion. This includes Oxygen (O2) present in the ambient air, Ozone O3, Halogens of Nitrates, etc.

D

D.A.D.
Détecteur Autonome Déclencheur [Actuating Detector]

D.A.S.
Dispositif Actionné de Sécurité [Actuated Safety Device]

D.C.M.
Dispositif de Commande Manuelle [Manually Controlled Device]

D.C.M.R.
Dispositif de Commandes Manuelles Regroupées [Grouped Manually Controlled Devices]

D.C.S.
Dispositif de Commande avec Signalisation [Control Device with Signalling]

D.C.T.
Dispositif Commandé Terminal [Controlled Device Terminal]

D.M.
Déclencheur Manuel [Manual Trigger]

D.S.
Diffuseur Sonore [Sound Diffuser]

D.R.S.D.
Direction du Renseignement et de la Sécurité de la Défense [Directorate for Defence Intelligence and Security]

E

E.R.P.
The Établissements Recevant du Public [Public Buildings], or ERP, are buildings to which external people are admitted. It does not matter whether the access is charged or free, unrestricted, restricted or by invitation. A business that is not open to the public, but only to its staff, is not an ERP. ERPs are classed in categories that define the applicable regulatory requirements (type of authorisation for works or safety regulations, for example) depending on the risks.

Emergency Lighting
Its aim is to indicate the evacuation route of a building even in the event of a power cut.

EN 14604  
The European standard EN 14604 certifies that your smoke alarm conforms to European standards.

Euroclasses 
Classification of a product depending on its reaction to fire.

Evacuation Guide
Trained volunteer who, during an evacuation of their building, has the role of guiding and prompting people to evacuate using the emergency exits.

Evacuation Plan
An evacuation plan is a plan that must be displayed in any building to facilitate the evacuation of the people present in the building in the case of fire. (NFX08-070 standard)

F

FD
Fire Damper (self-actuating or remote-controlled)

FD
Fire Door

FDS
Fire Detection System

Fire
A fire is a combustion of an entity producing flames, light and heat.

Fire Escape
Set of stairs made of fireproof materials, based on regulatory obligations, in order to enable the evacuation of the occupants of a building.

Fire Extinguisher
The fire extinguisher acts on one of the three elements of the fire triangle. Fire extinguishers contain water, CO2 or powder. Additives increase the extinguishing power of the extinguisher.

Fire Extinguisher
Tool to enable firefighting. There are several types depending on the nature of the fire: CO2, water + additive or powder.

Fire Prevention: 
These are all the measures taken to limit the risk of fire.

Fire Triangle
Fire is the result of combustion. Combustion is a chemical reaction that necessitates the combination of a fuel, a combustion agent and an activation energy. These 3 elements constitute the Fire Triangle.

Fire Warden
Trained volunteer who, during an evacuation of their building, has the role of checking that no one is left behind.

Fireproof Cabinet
A fireproof cabinet is a cabinet where the sides are made of a material that is resistant to temperature increase, to protect the objects or documents inside against fire risks.

Flagrant felony
Flagrant felony is the legal term employed to refer to a situation in which an individual is caught in the act of committing a felony or misdemeanour – Article 53 of the French Code of Criminal Procedure.

Flammability
Describes anything that is potentially flammable or combustible. This can be solids, gases or liquids.

Flue Gas
These gases produced by combustion can be: asphyxiant, corrosive and flammable or even toxic. This includes carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrocyanic gas (HCN) and others depending on the combustion materials.

Fuel
Matter that, in the presence of a combustion agent (oxygen) and energy (heat source or flame) generates combustion. Fuels are split into 3 large categories: solids, liquids or gases.

G

H

Heat and smoke vents
Heat and smoke vents are a security function against fire. They have three objectives: to facilitate evacuation, to prevent the spread of fire and to facilitate the access of the emergency services. They can be mechanical or natural, automatic or manual.

I

Ionisation Detector
Device using fire detection technology based on the use of radioactive matter. This technology is banned in France (ref. text).

Implementation of Fire Safety 
The implementation of fire safety of a building or part of a building is based on 4 major functions, which are: evacuation, heat and smoke vents, partitioning, and the shutdown of technical installations.

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

Release
Refers to all the parts of a building that enable the evacuation of its occupants (corridor, ramp, stairs, door, exit, etc.).

S

S.M.S.I.
Système de Mise en Sécurité Incendie [Fire Safety System Implementation]

S.S.I.
Système de Sécurité Incendie [Fire Safety System]

S.S.S.
Système de Sonorisation de Sécurité [Security PA System]

SCBA
Self-contained Breathing Apparatus

SDS
Safety Data Sheet

Secure Waiting Area
A Secure Waiting Area is an area with a shelter from smoke, flames and thermal radiation. A person, irrespective of their handicap, should be able to get there and if they cannot continue their route, wait for external help to evacuate (Article C034, paragraph 6 of the French Fire Safety Regulation).

Smoke
This is a mix of gas and vapour particles emerging from a burning entity.

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z